What are the new materials with development potential in the future?

Nowadays, with the rapid development of the scientific and technological revolution, the upgrading of new material products and the pace of material replacement are accelerated. The integration of new material technology and nanotechnology, biotechnology and information technology, the integration of structure and function, the obvious trend of intelligence of functional materials, and the environmentally friendly characteristics of materials, such as low carbon, green, renewable cycle and so on, have attracted more and more attention. So, what are the materials with potential for future development?

1. Graphene

Graphene is a new material in which carbon atoms connected by sp ²hybrids are tightly packed into a monolayer two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure. It has excellent optical, electrical and mechanical properties, and has important application prospects in material science, micro-nano processing, energy, biomedicine and drug delivery, and is considered to be a revolutionary material in the future.

With the gradual breakthrough of batch production and large-scale problems, the industrial application of graphene is accelerating. Based on the existing research results, the first areas to achieve commercial application may be mobile devices, aerospace, new energy batteries.

2. Carbon Fiber

Carbon fiber is a high strength and high modulus fiber with more than 90% carbon content. High temperature resistance ranks first in all chemical fibers. Acrylic fiber and viscose fiber are used as raw materials and carbonized by oxidation at high temperature. It is an excellent material for manufacturing aerospace and other high-tech equipment. It has the characteristics of high temperature resistance, friction resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance, which is fibrous, soft and can be processed into all kinds of fabrics. because of the preferred orientation of its graphite microcrystal structure along the fiber axis, it has high strength and modulus along the fiber axis.

The density of carbon fiber is low, so its specific strength and specific modulus are high. The main use of carbon fiber is to make advanced composite materials as reinforced materials, such as resin, metal, ceramic and carbon. The specific strength and modulus of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites are the highest among the existing engineering materials.

3. Carbon Nanotubes

As one-dimensional nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes are light in weight, perfectly connected in hexagonal structure, and have many abnormal mechanical, electrical and chemical properties. In recent years, with the in-depth study of carbon nanotubes and nanomaterials, their broad application prospects continue to show. It is a kind of one-dimensional quantum material with special structure (the radial size is nanometer, the axial size is micron, and both ends of the tube are basically sealed).

Carbon nanotubes are mainly composed of hexagonal carbon atoms to dozens of layers of coaxial circular tubes. Keep a fixed distance between layers, about 0.34nm, with a diameter of 2 to 20 nm. According to the different orientations of carbon hexagons along the axis, carbon hexagons can be divided into three types: sawtooth type, armchair type and spiral type. Among them, spiral carbon nanotubes are chiral, while zigzag and armchair carbon nanotubes are not chiral.

4. Light Alloy

Light alloy mainly refers to titanium alloy, magnesium alloy and aluminum alloy, among which titanium and magnesium alloy have a small application scale at present, which benefit from the rapid development of aviation industry and automobile industry, and will become the most potential alloy materials during the Twelfth five-year Plan period.

Titanium is widely used in aerospace, chemical, petroleum, electric power and other fields because of its excellent properties, such as high strength, good ductility, corrosion resistance, non-magnetism and so on. Aluminum alloy was used earlier, and now it has a high degree of popularity, and it often appears in the fields of cars, ships and so on. Magnesium alloy is the lightest practical metal, and it is one of the most important new materials for automobile lightweight.

5. Superconducting Material

Superconducting material refers to the material with the property that the resistance is equal to zero and repels the magnetic line of force at a certain low temperature. 28 elements and thousands of alloys and compounds have been found to be superconductors. In recent years, superconducting materials have attracted wide attention all over the world because of their zero resistance, complete diamagnetism and tunneling effect. Its most well-known use is used in the power grid, because there is no resistance, the loss in the power network is zero, which will save 10% of the power loss caused by transmission.

6. Semiconductor Material

Semiconductor materials are a kind of electronic materials with semiconductor properties (the conductivity is between conductor and insulator, and the resistivity is in the range of 1m Ω cm~1G Ω cm), which can be used to make semiconductor devices and integrated circuits. Semiconductor materials can be classified according to chemical composition, and then amorphous and liquid semiconductors with special structure and properties are classified separately.

According to this classification, semiconductor materials can be divided into elemental semiconductors, inorganic compound semiconductors, organic compound semiconductors and amorphous and liquid semiconductors. In addition, the industries involved in semiconductor materials mainly include integrated circuits, LED, solar photovoltaic and so on.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *